Life began in the ocean. As the oceans are the largest cohesive eco-system on earth the insights that researchers will be able to derive are crucial not only for the preservation of mankind but also of our planet.Plankton’s importance for the earth’s climate is at least equivalent to that of the rainforest. Yet only a small fraction of organisms that compose it have been classified and analysed. Tiny organisms are collaborating in huge numbers for maximum impact, absorbing CO2 and releasing O2 back into the atmosphere. What are they, how do they function, and why does it matter?